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Mongolia

The Situation
Mongolia is a source, transit, and destination country for human trafficking.

Source
Mongolian women and children were trafficked for sexual and labor exploitation in the People’s Republic of China, Macau, South Korea,1  Japan, Malaysia, Israel, Turkey, Switzerland, and Hungary.2   Many Mongolians voluntarily migrate to work or study abroad but are later coerced into exploitative conditions. Some trafficked women were recruited through fraudulent marriages to foreign husbands, primarily South Koreans.3   

Destination
Mongolia is a destination country for a significant number of victims who are trafficked from North Korea for forced labor.4

Internal Trafficking
Mongolia has internal trafficking of children for commercial sexual exploitation.5

The Mongolian Government
The Mongolian Government was placed in Tier 2 in the 2007 U.S. Department of State’s Trafficking in Persons Report for not fully complying with the Trafficking Victims Protection Act’s minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking but making significant efforts to do so. Some NGOs believe police were complicit in the trafficking of women across Mongolian borders.6 

Section 113 of the Criminal Code criminalizes human trafficking, with penalties for up to 10-15 years in prison.7 

Prosecution
The Mongolian Government investigated 12 suspected trafficking cases in 2006 but was never prosecuted because of lack of evidence. The Government did not prosecute any traffickers in 2006.8

Protection
During 2006, the Mongolian government began implementing a national action plan to enhance efforts of Mongolian diplomatic missions to combat and assist Mongolian trafficking victims abroad.9  The Government announced plans to open a consulate in Macau to provide services to trafficking victims.10  However, victim protection within Mongolia was very limited. The government does not fund any shelters for trafficking victims and relies on NGOs and IGOs to assist trafficking victims.11

Prevention
The Mongolian government held an awareness raising campaign throughout 2006. The Ministry of Affairs continues to distribute information on trafficking to Mongolian consular officers abroad.12

Recommendations
The U.S. Department of State recommends that the Mongolian Government should increase its efforts to combat trafficking in persons, particularly through law enforcement means. The government should ensure that it has the legal tools to prosecute all trafficking offenses, including those which occur through fraud or coercion.13

_________________________

1   2007 US Department of State Trafficking in Persons Report
2  2006 US Department of State Human Rights Report
3  2007 US Department of State Trafficking in Persons Report
4  2007 US Department of State Trafficking in Persons Report
5  2007 US Department of State Trafficking in Persons Report
6  2006 US Department of State Human Rights Report
7  2007 US Department of State Trafficking in Persons Report
8  2007 US Department of State Trafficking in Persons Report
9  2006 US Department of State Human Rights Report
10  2007 US Department of State Trafficking in Persons Report
11  2006 US Department of State Human Rights Report
12  2007 US Department of State Trafficking in Persons Report
13  2007 US Department of State Trafficking in Persons Report

 


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